Forensic Science is the application of all scientific knowledge for the purposes of law, enforcement and administration of justice through use of scientific evidence or material evidence or physical evidence or objective evidence which is available in the form of physical living or no living material which is superior to personal evidence or subjective evidence that is required to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspects in criminal, civil, statutory, regulatory investigative matter and trials.
The Forensic Science Laboratory (FSL) is an organisation where the scientists of various specialities undertake laboratory tests on a variety of evidence materials with a sole objective of linking the crime with the criminals, victims and crime scene.
FSL thus provides a comprehensive scientific service from crime scene processing to evidence collection, forensic analysis, report and expert testimony in the courts.
There are many disciplines and departments within a forensic science laboratory viz. Physics, Chemistry, Toxicology, Narcotics & Drugs, Biology, Serology, DNA, Cyber, Audio-Video, Documents, Fingerprints, Engineering, Ballistics, Crime Scene Processing, Linguistics, Forensic Accounting etc.
Truth Labs is the only independent full-fledged forensic science laboratory in India and one of its kind in the world
There are six Central Forensic Science Laboratories (CFSLs) in India under the control of the Directorate of Forensic Science Services (DFSS), MHA, GOI and one CFSL under Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) besides 29 State FSL in each state with some having Regional and District FSLs.
Truth Labs, the first independent forensic science laboratory in India, has been rendering a wide range of forensic analytical and field investigation services for the last 12 years. Currently, Truth Labs is operating from its 6 metropolitan offices located in Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore and Kolkata.
Considering that over thirty million cases are pending in the Indian High Courts, Session Courts, Subordinate Courts etc., Truth Labs setup as an independent FSL facilitates the speedy disbursal of justice to every individual or institution in India (NRIs can also avail) who find difficulty in approaching courts or police for resolving their internal, family or business disputes by referring their cases with appropriate documentary or material evidence for examination and report and thereupon to defend in the Courts of law by the former central and state government experts who constitute the Expert Board of Truth Labs.
Truth Labs has an institutional facility with necessary infrastructure including manpower, equipment and scientific environment in all its six offices (unlike individual agencies set up by a few experts in their houses) ensuring prompt delivery of quality reports issued by lifetime experienced experts retired from central and state FSLs across India on account of which 50% of 15,000 cases so far received in the last 12 years have come from police, courts and government agencies which rely and depend upon Truth Labs reports in important, urgent and sensitive cases.
Truth Labs offer a comprehensive range of forensic services such as Questioned Documents, Disputed Fingerprints, Cyber Forensics, Audio-Video Forensics, Polygraph/Lie-Detector, DNA Profiling, Forensic Linguistics, Physicochemical & Biochemical Analysis, Forensic Accounting & Auditing, Medico-Legal Consultancy, 10 Digit Fingerprint Certification as well as Investigation of incidents such as suspected frauds, insurance claims, burglary, theft, forgery, cheating, trespass, murder, sexual assault, injury, death, abuse or misuse of power, data theft, data leakage, source code theft etc., in addition to providing Forensic Education, Training and Consultancy.
All the senior experts of Truth Labs are qualified, trained, experienced and accredited Forensic Scientists who served the Central and State Government Forensic Institutions throughout their lifetime honestly and retired Honourably. They have been tendering expert testimony in courts all over India. In Truth Labs they have not only given legally valid opinions but also rendered expert testimony in over 5000 cases in courts across India and tribunals, commissioners of enquiry or other legal bodies in the last 12 years.
Truth Labs is the ONLY independent lab set up with 20 Former Central and State Government Directors/Heads of Departments, who undertake examination of cases and issue reports that are valid and legally admissible in the courts and their expert testimony is recorded whenever legal defence is necessary. IT IS A UNIQUE FEATURE ONLY AVAILABLE WITH TRUTH LABS.
The reports are given usually within 7 days in routine cases, 14 days in complex cases and little extra time in voluminous cases and in any matter of emergency in 2 days.
Truth Labs is registered as a public society under Andhra Pradesh State Government Societies Registration Act and also a registered MSME organisation of GOI, has been exclusively set up to provide services to common man being easily accessible and affordable to everyone and the professional service fee charged is towards payment of remuneration to the experts and for meeting the administrative and operational expenses with no additional margins for profiteering from our side.
The exhibits along with a requisition letter by the competent forwarding authority of service seeker addressed to the Director of respective regional office of Truth Labs giving detailed description of the documents or material evidence, legal / case reference details, brief background of the matter and nature and purpose of examination required, shall be required to be submitted in person, through an authorised representative or by reliable postal / courier services, for forensic examination and report thereof by the concerned experts of Truth Labs.
Truth Labs is not responsible for improper delivery of registered letters/parcels resulting in loss or damage or pilferage of documents. Once the documents are received at Truth Labs, the case is registered assigning a unique File No. and an acknowledgment letter for receipt of the documents is sent immediately.
Even during Covid-19 outbreak across the globe, many clients have come forward for utilizing the forensic analytical services of Truth Labs by sending the relevant material evidence in the form of scanned documents, audio-video recordings, images and pictures, soft copies of mails & headers etc. through email / whatsapp which have been examined by the Experts of Truth Labs and digitally secured reports were furnished. Based on these experiences gained, TRUTH LABS ONLINE FORENSIC SERVICES are now being extended in all urgent, sensitive and important matters of examination of Questioned Documents, Handwriting / Signatures Comparison, Digital Documents Examination, Disputed Fingerprints, Forensic Accounting, Audio-Video Authentication, Speaker & Image Identification, CCTV Footage Enhancement, Email Tracing, Medico-Legal Consultancy etc.
Truth Labs was setup with a sole purpose of empowering all individuals and institutions facing issues of abuse, misuse, fraud, cheating, misappropriation and other traditional crimes like theft, burglary, rape, murder etc. and violations of statutory, regulatory and environmental laws against persons and property to obtain reliable and quality forensic analytical services to settle their internal, family or business disputes.
In addition, courts, police, enforcement agencies as well as other govt. FSLs also refer cases to Truth Labs in all urgent, sensitive and important matters of criminal and civil nature for strengthening and supplementing the efforts of the government to uphold dharma and ensure justice to all in a fair, equitable and transparent manner.
Truth Labs services have been utilized by Courts including 5 High Courts, as well as Sessions & Subordinate Courts of more than over 20 States; Police including CBI, NIA, CRPF, NCRB, CPOs and City, District Police, CID, EOW etc., of more than 15 States; State Forensic Science Laboratories of Delhi and Haryana; Over 40 Banks including public, private and foreign Banks; Over 20 Insurance Companies including public, private and foreign Insurance Cos.; Over 300 Central and State Government Departments & PSUs; Corporates and MNCs, Law firms, Universities, Hospitals, etc., and Individuals from over 25 States across India and several countries abroad.
A comprehensive list of past and present clients (since 2007) is available at Our Clients page. This list includes hundreds of government departments, PSUs, corporates, law firms.
In the last 12 years, Truth Labs has reported over 15,000 cases of which 9000 pertain to Questioned Documents, over 1000 cases dealing with Disputed Fingerprint Analysis, 800 DNA Profiling cases, 500 cases dealing with Polygraph/Lie-Detector, over 900 cases of Cyber Forensics, 900 cases of Audio-Video Forensics, 500 cases involving Biochemical & Physico-chemical examinations, 200 cases of Crime Scene Processing, over 100 cases of Medico-Legal Evaluation as well as 1000 cases of Investigation of Insurance Frauds and 200 cases of Economic Frauds Investigations besides several cases of 10 digit Fingerprint Certification for over 30 countries.
The services of Truth Labs are widely recognized by the law enforcement agencies including police, courts, government agencies of central and state governments, institutions as well as individuals from India and abroad by virtue of its credibility, reliability, transparency, accountability, confidentiality and legal admissibility of ISO 9001:2015 certified laboratory reports given by ISO 17025 NABL accredited experts.
Circulars and Standing Orders were issued by DGP Karnataka, Commissioner of Police, Delhi and Kolkata and the High Court of Andhra Pradesh, advising their officers to approach Truth Labs for the past ten years and accordingly more than 15,000 cases referred by police, courts, government departments only have been successfully reported by Truth Labs and expert testimony given.
MoUs have been signed with the Govt. of NCT of Delhi and Government of Haryana for examination and reporting to cases of Questioned Documents by the Experts of Truth Labs to clear the backlog of cases pending at Delhi and Haryana State FSLs.
The reports given by Truth Labs are valid in the court of law according to Section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act. All the senior experts of Truth Labs were originally selected by Central and State Government Forensic Science Laboratory based on their qualification and were trained and then after gaining certain expertise and experience declared as accredited experts in varied fields of forensic science and thereby gained proficiency and thereafter served their lifetime and retired and as such their opinions and reports are legally valid and the evidence is admissible in courts of law or for any legal purpose.
Yes, our forensic experts shall be available to render their evidence in all the courts across India and abroad.
The expert testimonial charges are collected towards expert remuneration besides his / her conveyance and other incidental expenses for travelling to other destination to tender evidence which is nominal and lowest compared to govt. and individual private labs.
The information or documents or any other material evidence provided to Truth Labs is kept safe, secure and highly confidential.
Truth Labs accepts payments by wire transfers, business cheques, demand drafts and all major debit / credit cards.
There are over 20 senior experts retired from central and state government departments including FSLs, police, judiciary, banks, insurance companies who are supported by more than 30 professional forensic scientists, cyber forensic analysts, information technology specialists, laboratory analysts etc.
Yes, Truth Labs can identify the source and perpetrator of an email.
Any surface such as paper, wall, cloth, skin, floor etc. containing handwritten, typewritten, printed, obliterated, erased, invisible matter or inscriptions or marks, symbols or signs, intended to communicate a message and having personal or business or civil or criminal connotations, whose reliability and source is disputed, suspected or questioned is a Questioned Document.
In order to prove the authenticity of the Questioned Document or ascertain the authorship of the handwriting / signatures / printed or typed matter contained therein, the known standard or genuinely admitted writings / signatures of the writer or printed / typed matter along with authentic specimens or sample documents are required for comparison studies by the Documents Expert.
Some of the common types of Questioned Documents subjected for forensic document examination include various kinds of bank, academic, personal, business, property, legal documents such as:
• Wills • GPAs • Gift Deeds • Registration Documents • Mutation Deeds • Settlement Deeds
• Cheques • Bank Drafts • Counterfoils • Pay-In Slips • Pre Orders • Account Opening Forms
• Loan Agreements • Mortgage Documents
• Sale Deeds • Agreements • Receipts • Promissory Notes • Affidavits • Invoices • Ledgers
• Answer Sheets • Application Forms • Mark Sheets • Certificates • OMR Sheets
• Laminated Documents • Photocopied Documents • Colour Scanned/Printed Documents
• Minutes Books • Board Resolutions • MoUs • Appointment and Resignation Letters • Time Sheets • Contracts
• Stamp Papers • Passports • ID Cards • Licenses • Currency Notes
• Suicide notes • Anonymous Letters • Threatening Letters
• Medical Records • Income Tax Records • Election Petitions
• Surface features • Latent images • Alterations • Watermarks • Ink stamps • Rubber Stamps
Several cases of fraudulent transactions in business, family and personal disputes have been solved by analysing different types of questioned documents such as
• Forgery • Cheating • Conspiracy • Falsification • Misappropriation • Embezzlement • Counterfeiting
• Mis-Conduct • Corruption • Bribery • Identity Theft • Contested Wills • Title/Deed Lawsuits
• Impersonation • Recruitment Frauds
• Negotiable Instrument Act • Central Excise Income Tax • Customs Related • Medical Malpractices
• Suicides • Homicides • Kidnappings • Extortion • Stalking
Forensic Document Experts of Truth Labs have examined and reported over 10,000 cases referred by police, courts, government agencies, banks, corporates, academic institutions and individuals with respect to verification of documents undertaking examination of ink, paper, typed / printed matter, handwriting, thump impressions, stamp impressions, metallic seal impressions, rubber seal impressions, water marks, stamp papers, security features, photographs, alterations, erasures, obliteration etc. with the help of latest state-of-the-art equipment including Video Spectral Comparator, stereo-zoom microscope, magnifiers under various lighting arrangements, so as to ascertain the genuineness of the documents and authorship of the signatures, handwritings, thump impressions or otherwise.
Experiences over the years show that some of the documents are fabricated either by printing the same matter on multiple stamp papers / certificates to make multiple copies appearing to be originals so as to mislead the authorities as well as the document examiners. Even if the stamp paper / certificate is genuine, the printing, the numbering, the signatures, the rubber stamp impressions, the thumb impressions etc. could be forged. Sometimes the fraudsters are resorting to taking a colour photostat of the text on the genuine stamp paper and then at times even laminate it to mislead the authorities. In all these cases the document experts of Truth Labs can undertake forensic examination to identify the forgery.
The Forensic Document Examination Expert Board of Truth Labs consists of Former Director of Delhi FSL, Former GEQDs of Shimla, Kolkata, Hyderabad & Chandigarh, Former Joint Director, APFSL, Hyderabad, Chief Document Examiners of Maharashtra and Karnataka, Former Scientific Officer, Delhi FSL and others.
All the forensic document examiners of Truth Labs are erstwhile central and state government experts who are considered as court accredited experts and as such their opinions are admissible as evidence under section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1960.
The referred documents are examined carefully and thoroughly in various forensic aspects of document examination including detection of forgery with the help of latest state-of-the-art scientific equipment such as VSC-40FS, Stereo Microscope (Leica make) coupled with computer imaging system, direct incident light, oblique light, transmitted light and Ultra Violet light etc.
The basic requirement of the ‘Standards’ is that these must contain sufficient common features of signatures, handwritings, printed or typed matter etc. for comparison with same features of characters and their combinations as appearing in ‘Questioned’, to be indicative of the writer’s writing habits or a typing / printing device’s individual defects, during a period or as near thereto as possible when the Questioned Document is supposed to have been executed.
As such for an objective forensic examination of questioned signatures / handwriting on disputed documents, it is preferred to have genuinely admitted signatures / handwriting of the person concerned on atleast 4-5 different undisputed / standard documents executed in routine course of business, preferably of the same / nearby period as that of the disputed documents, procured from various official, legal and banking records.
Also it would be preferred to have the specimen signatures / handwriting collected and certified in an open court or an authorized banking or legal authority in the presence of independent witnesses or alternatively can also be collected by Truth Labs for the purpose.
To ensure thorough and comprehensive forensic examination for a legally valid report, it is preferred to have the originals of all possible questioned as well as standard documents.
Alternatively clear good quality duly certified reproduction copies or colour scanned copies of the documents in PDF, JPG, or TIF formats can also be utilised for forensic document examination. There are limitations to examinations involving photocopies and the quality of the copy is a significant factor but forensic handwriting examinations can often be performed using photocopies.
Truth Labs has been able to furnish conclusive opinions in many a cases based on examination of photocopies only. However, it is always recommended to make every effort to obtain originals during the course of litigation as the original documents offer objective assessment with respect to examination of ink and paper used which helps in determining the origin of document.
A preliminary assessment by a document expert on suitability and sufficiency of material at hand can be undertaken based on scanned copies of all the documents, if shared through email.
It is always recommended that the entire page of the document be sent as Truth Labs will need to source where each signature / handwriting is originated from for thorough and comprehensive forensic examination for a legally valid report.
In such cases, initially the preliminary examinations are conducted on reproduction copies and once permitted by the concerned authorities, the Forensic Document Experts of Truth Labs will be undertake inspection and photography of the respective original documents and retain photographic printouts for the purpose of marking, examination and reporting.
Yes, it is possible, but the examiner must first learn about the characteristics of the written language and how that writing is taught. For example, in some languages, placement of Diacritical’s (distinguishing strokes) is important and in other languages, shading of handwritten strokes is significant. The actual methods of examination are the same, but factors are weighed differently when the structure of the writing varies among languages. But, if the material on both counts is similar, then examination becomes easy to an examiner.
It is not possible to give an opinion on the age of the document or a signature as there is no practical method to pinpoint the age with scientific accuracy. External factors like weather, storage etc., influence the age of the document which cannot be established concretely. Moreover, due to lack of data in different kinds of pages and inks used in the Indian context, it is not possible to ascertain the absolute age of the document. However based on the variations of the writer with the age in his/ her handwritings, signatures, initials, efforts can be made to fix the relative age of the writings thereby determining the approximate age or contemporary period of the writer and this is what is done anywhere in India or the World.
Age, gender, and handedness (right- or left-handed) cannot be ascertained by a person’s handwriting.
The principal of handwriting comparison says that like can be compared with like, as such a handwriting must be compared with handwriting only that too there must be similar text in both sets of writings for comparative studies. For example, “Jack” cannot be compared with “Bob” because there are no common letters.
A conclusive opinion cannot be given in a one-on-one comparison. A sufficient sample of genuinely admitted standard signatures are needed for comparison so as to account for the extent of natural variation that can appear in a person’s signature. Conclusive may not be possible unless all characteristics are available for arriving at definitive conclusions, hence submission of more admitted is recommended.
Yes! All materials are returned back to the client after forensic studies are undertaken and report / opinion is furnished.
No, all examinations are non-destructive.
Graphology or graphoanalysis attempts to estimate the character traits of a person from the handwriting while and create a personality profile from handwriting of a person while Forensic Document Examination involves in-depth analysis of more than 20 different handwriting characteristics and its comparison with known standards in order to identify the author or origin of the document of cases of disputes, forgery, cheating etc. While both disciplines involve the analysis of handwriting the principles and methods are quite different.
So far, no definite methods are available any where in the world for absolute determination of age of the ink used for signatures or handwriting and even for the paper used. However in a few cases it would be possible to distinguish the relative differences in writing characteristics of a person with the advent of age. Such secondary differences can be identified if standard writings of different time periods are available, which can discriminate the age and time related variations.
‘Specimen’ signatures are signatures of the concerned person taken either in an open court or by the forensic experts for the purpose of examination in the presence of independent witnesses having good social reputation/background.
Any Questioned/Suspected/Disputed documents for examination of handwritings or signatures can be sent preferably through a responsible person or when not possible via registered post. The documents should be furnished with a forwarding letter stating the type of forensic services required and the details of enclosures sent. Incase of signatures, please mark the Disputed Signature as ‘Q’ and the Standard or Specimen signatures sent for comparison as ‘S’. Truth Labs is not responsible for improper delivery of registered letters/parcels resulting in loss or damage or pilferage of documents.
Once the documents are received at Truth Labs the case will be registered, and an acknowledgment letter for the receipt of the documents is sent immediately.
Although originals are preferred for examination of signatures/handwritings, clear photocopies can also be submitted on which opinions can be given in most of the cases. However there are certain limitations with the examination of photocopies.
Fingerprint Examination has clearly stood the test of time and experience. Fingerprints are permanent and unique. It has been established over 100 years ago that friction ridge patterns remain unchanged naturally in their ridge detail during the lifetime of an individual and that fact makes it possible for individualization of fingerprints leading to absolute personal identification. Also no two fingerprints are alike. The ridges on the fingers of all persons have basic characteristics such as ridge endings, bifurcations and dots, which appear in combinations that are never repeated on the other finger of same person or any other persons, not even in identical twins.
Yes, Truth Labs has already received and examined such cases and detected frauds perpetrated by a group of miscreants who forged on behalf of thousands of employees and our reports are legally admissible in the courts of law.
In many such cases wherein it was found after thorough investigation of thumb impression as well as photographs and signatures affixed by them during various processes of admission and examination were proven to be different and impersonated by different people for same candidate. Truth Labs studies revealed for applicant, one person applies for the post, someone else appears for examination and yet another person appears for interview and finally another person joins the post. Such practices of blatant impersonation and cheating were detected in hundreds of cases.
Yes, TL has been rendering such services for the past over 10 years and successfully detected the frauds to the relief of the concerned.
Although original documents having fingerprints are preferred for examination, clear photocopies can also be submitted. However there are limitations with the examination of photocopies.
Present on the tops of the friction skin ridges are very minute sweat pores that are constantly exuding perspiration. This perspiration adheres to the outline of these ridges. Other substances, like oil from touching your face or hair, can also adhere to these ridges. When an object is touched, a recording of these characteristics may be left upon the surface. At times, these impressions will be visible, and at other times they will be invisible; thus the term “latent”. Although visible prints are truly patent prints, they are frequently referred to as latent prints. The invisible latents must be developed or made visible either by the application of powders, chemicals, or electronic means.
Yes, as and when required Truth Labs experts visit the scene of crime to develop and lift fingerprints. In cases of theft, cheating, embezzlement, murder etc. fingerprints of suspects can be collected for comparison and suspect identification.
Fingerprints are static and do not change with age and time. With age there will be changes in size and shape, as the person grows, but the basic pattern of the fingerprint remains unchanged from infancy to adulthood. Since each person has unique fingerprints, they can be used for personal identification.
Injuries such as superficial burns, abrasions, or cuts do not affect the ridge structure or alter the dermal papillae, and the original pattern is duplicated in any new skin that grows.
It is not possible to determine sex, age or race from a latent print; if sufficient DNA is left behind, then the party’s sex can be determined.
Truth Labs in all its six offices at Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Kolkata has qualified and certified fingerprint experts and the services of Truth Labs are already recognised by embassies of various countries such US, Bahrain and several other countries and so far such services were already provided for PCC requirements of Foreign Embassies of over 30 countries such as USA, UK, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, UAE, Bahrain, Israel, Singapore, Canada, Switzerland, Uganda, Malaysia, Kuwait, Iraq, Oman, Afghanistan, Qatar, South Africa, Nigeria, Iran, Tanzania, Trinidad & Tobago, Maldives and many others.
Finger printing is done by
a. using ink and a card, or
b. using digital scanning and printing
In ink fingerprinting process, the person’s finger is first cleaned with alcohol to remove any sweat and dried thoroughly. The person then rolls his or her fingertip on the inkpad to cover the entire finger digit. Then each finger is the rolled onto pre-marked cards from one side of the fingernail to the other. These are therefore called “rolled prints”. Then, all 10 fingers of both the hands are placed on the card at a 45° angle, ensuring enough ink is left over the fingers, to produce a set of “plain or flat impressions”. These are useful to verify the accuracy of rolled impressions as well as for keeping record of 10 digit prints.
In the digital scanning based fingerprinting, an image of finger print is taken by placing the fingers of the person on an optical reading surface of the device and held for a few seconds till all the characteristics are recorded. The reader then converts the information from the scanner to the printer for making a 10 digit fingerprint card.
The PG Diploma awarded after successful completion of the course work designed by Truth Labs in affiliation with the University of Hyderabad, Centre for Distance Education is a course useful for acquiring knowledge by any legal professional for improving their professional standards and for those who are seeking careers in police, prosecution, judiciary etc. can immensely benefit in their ability to perform well in the theory exams and oral interviews.
No. While blood pressure is one of the physiological reactions measured, it does not affect the accuracy of the test. However, prior to examination, it is necessary to ensure medical fitness of the subject.
As the senior experts of Truth Labs who joined Truth Labs after their retirement from central and state fingerprint bureau after having been recruited, trained and certified by GOI and have already given expert opinion in thousands of cases and their reports are valid in courts of law and have been attending the courts for expert testimony across the country.
DNA is Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, a biological material found in all human beings and other living beings, whether live or dead condition, which is inherited from both parents and acts as an invisible unique personal identity factor for people plant animals as well as viruses like Covid-19 to know the origin of all living things.
DNA can be obtained from any cell inside a living being’s body. All living tissues including body parts like hair roots, nails, teeth, bones, tissues etc. and physiological fluids like blood, semen, saliva etc. in case of human beings can be used as DNA evidence besides seeds, leaves, pollen and other plant parts in case of botanical samples and hides of deer, quills of birds, tissues of animal, insects, microbial worms and viruses.
DNA is useful to identify an individual because everyone’s genetic code (their genome) is unique, unless they have an identical twin. The string of chemical letters in a person’s DNA can therefore act like a unique bar code to identify them.
DNA and fingerprints can be left wherever a person goes, so both can be used to track and identify individuals. But DNA can also identify relatives, including non-paternity and contains genetic information about a person’s health and other characteristics and the risks of genetic disorders in their children.
DNA is a string of chemical letters and such strings that make up a person’s DNA occur repeatedly in the genome and constitute the DNA Profile. These are known as short tandem repeats (STRs) and the number of repeats differs between individuals and can be counted. Each STR is made up of two strands, one inherited from the mother and one from the father. The DNA profile also includes a test of a gene called amelogenin, which can be used to test whether the DNA sample comes from a male (with an X and Y chromosome) or a female (with two X chromosomes).
Because a person inherits half their DNA from their mother and half from their father, DNA profile can be used to identify the biological relatives also. Close relatives have a DNA sequence that is more alike than distant relatives or than someone who is unrelated. Comparing two people’s DNA profiles can identify close genetic relatives such as parents, brothers, sisters and children.
Touch DNA, also known as Trace DNA, is a forensic method for analysing DNA left at the scene of a crime. It is called “touch DNA” because it only requires very small samples, for example from the skin cells left on an object after it has been touched or casually handled, or from footprints.
DNA Fingerprinting tests can be conducted to establish the paternity of a child in cases involving:
Yes, using a 13 loci STR system with the mother’s sample, you will usually see a probability of paternity around 99.999%; without the mother, you will see a probability of paternity around 99.9%.
It is recommend sending the femur if available. If the femur is not an option, then a molar or the next largest load-bearing bone available would be the best option. Truth Labs has been successful with obtaining full DNA profiles from highly-decomposed and burnt bone fragments in many cases of missing persons identification, rape and murder victim identification etc.
If the cremation temperature was lower than 1500 degrees Celsius, teeth may have survived and could be processed for STR or mtDNA analysis.
Truth Labs can examine the hair for STR suitability. The suitability will depend on whether there is a root attached and the stage of growth of the hair. Based on our examination, we will make a recommendation for nuclear or mitochondrial testing.
Yes, mitochondrial testing is the DNA analysis method for profiling using hair samples without roots.
The subjects are required to sign a prescribed Proforma in the form of an Affidavit on a Rs. 20/- Stamp paper declaring the willful decision to undergo DNA test and then get it duly attested by an attorney or notary. Also all adults must bring a valid proof of ID like a passport or a driver’s license. Incase of minors’, a birth certificate or hospital birth record must be brought. Passport size photographs of all those providing samples for the DNA test are required.
The DNA test results are given usually within a period of 10 days, while in cases of emergency such as organ transplantation within 5 days.
Truth Labs, rendering services in DNA analysis with regards to paternity disputes, identification of persons in murder, rape & mass disaster cases, establishment of pedigree, child swapping, organ transplantation and HLA technique in collaboration with leading laboratories such as CCMB, CSIR, Ministry of Science & Technology; Genome Foundation, Hyderabad; Life Forensics Laboratory, Gurgaon.
Yes, Truth Labs has a facility to offer affordable high quality DNA genetic tests for patients with genetic diseases like ß-thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia, organ transplantation, single gene disorders etc.
DNA testing is generally considered to be the most accurate testing method available. DNA paternity testing can show that a man is highly likely to be the father with about 99.9% accuracy, or that he is excluded as being the father with 100% accuracy.
Blood samples of the child, mother and father need to be provided for a disputed paternity test. Only under special circumstances are samples of the child and one parent taken for testing.
The subjects are required to come to any of the offices of Truth Labs located in Hyderabad, Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai.
5ml of fresh blood in EDTA vials or Blood spotted on FTA Cards
|S. No.||Nature of Examination||Type of Sample|
|1||Paternity / Maternity / Biological Relatedness|
|Samples to be collected by scientists of Truth Labs or authorised medical officer with due certification upon identification of the subjects|
|2||Personal Identification of deceased||Molar tooth or femur (long) bone, or any other biological material such as a drop of blood, saliva, semen, and any body part such as bones, tissue, skull, teeth, hair with root etc.|
|Samples collected during post mortem by an authorized doctor and handed over to the investigation agency and thereupon submitted to Truth Labs following proper procedure of identification, collection, certification, labelling, packing and forwarding, in sealed condition along with a request letter / memo from the concerned forwarding authority giving background of the case, details of the exhibits and nature and purpose of examination, enclosing copy of FIR, seizure list, report of medico-legal examination and other relevant documents for reference and record.|
|3||Identity of diver in accident cases||Stains and scrapings from upholstery fabric, dashboard surface, windshield glass, running board surface etc. and|
Fresh blood from suspected / alleged driver with due certification of his identity
|Samples are collected after thorough inspection, search, identification and recording of samples from the incident vehicle by the expert team of Truth Labs|
DNA Fingerprinting tests can be conducted for identification, individualisation or establishing biological relatedness in a wide variety of cases such as:
a. To establish the paternity in cases involving:
• Accidental or intentional child swapping (to know who are the biological father and the biological mother)
• Property heredity issues (to determine parentage)
• Disputed paternity (to know who is the biological father)
• Child adoption in civil matters
• Fetal remains testing
b. Personal identity of dead in accidents, fires, mass disasters, missing persons, unidentified bodies etc. (by comparing with DNA of kith and kin)
c. Insurance driver change cases to determine the identity of driver who got injured at the time of motor vehicle accident (by examining blood from stains during injury on and around the driver seat and console with control samples collected from alleged / suspected drivers)
d. Rape and murder cases with evidence of blood, semen etc. (to link the victim to the accused and prove the crime)
e. Relationship establishment for organ transplant, surrogacy & IVF, visa and immigration processes (by comparing wit DNA of kith and kin)
f. Plant and wildlife DNA testing (comparison with known samples)
All hardware, storage media and other media like desktops, laptops, mobile phones, personal digital assistants, servers, flash drives, external hard drives and camera cards, CD/DVDs, floppy disks, zip drives, tape media, digital organizers, SIM cards, cell phone memory and all types of smart cards can be used as evidence. Also included are all types of electronic data like e-mail, webmail (hotmail, yahoo, AOL), plain text and documents, images, calendar files, contact files, databases, spreadsheets, digital faxes, audio files, video files, websites, computer applications, viruses and spyware.
Any computer based fraud, abuse etc. such as obscene, defamatory or ransom emails, intellectual property thefts, employee dishonesty, sexual harassment, identity theft, financial frauds, phishing, stalking, hacking, business espionage, trade and business secrets thefts etc. are undertaken at Truth Labs.
There are very distinct differences between Computer Professionals and specialized Computer Forensic Examiner. While both work with computers, the focus and training’s is drastically different. Normal hardware and software knowledge in no way equates to the specificity level of a computer forensics expert. The ability to safely and thoroughly examine the computers or any kind of digital evidence is a highly specialized skill that requires specialized training and systematic procedures. If anyone other than a qualified computer examiner does the job of collection or retrieval of data there is every possibility of altering, losing, or destroying the data.
Yes. It is possible to track and trace the source of these messages.
Yes. Truth Labs has sophisticated software’s and tools to recover deleted data from hard disks and memory devices. Evidences can be retrieved from user files, deleted files, email messages, file copying, attempted data destruction, internet usage and other activities.
Yes, Truth Labs can identify the source and perpetrator of an email.
We cannot assure a 100% recovery or retrieval of all data, however, all possible attempts would be made. In case the phone or laptop has been formatted by using “Factory Reset” or similar options, available technology does not allow the retrieval of such deleted data
We can attempt to recover data however, 100% cannot be given
No, it cannot be done.
Yes, it can be done but we 100% recovery cannot be guaranteed.
No, it cannot be done.
No, if the mobile phone is not getting switched on, we cannot undertake the examination of the same.
No, we cannot trace the location of a mobile number.
We can attempt to retrieve the data but we cannot guarantee 100 % retrieval. It depends on the extent to which the device was used after the data was deleted.
No, it cannot be done.
Yes, the receipt of the messages can be authenticated, however, the contents are not subject of authentication. We would need the mobile phone of either the sender or the recipient. Only if the mobile phone of the sender or recipient is submitted for examination and WhatsApp chats are retrieved from it, we can issue a 65B certificate.
Yes, it can be done. However, the content of the emails are not subject of authentication.
No, content of emails cannot be authenticated. However, we can authenticate the email with respect to its sender, recipient, date & time of receipt, attachments, if any.
No, they can be subjected to manipulation.
We can attempt the retrieval. It is informed that bypassing of passwords may not be possible for all mobile phones and hence is subject to the make and model of the mobile phone.
We can attempt to retrieve the recording, only of the same has been recorded and saved in the phone. If only phone numbers are available, then we would not be able to retrieve or examine the call.
No, we cannot track the location.
Yes, we can authenticate the required Facebook ID/ page. We can ascertain if the particular page/ ID are active or not
Yes, we can authenticate the media on the device and it is preferred that the device is submitted for analysis as well. The 65 B certification can be given only if the primary device (the device used to record the media) is submitted.
No, authenticating of printouts of chats in the absence of the device or source of the chat cannot be undertaken.
No, We cannot recover deleted emails from a web-based email account.
You may submit the device for forensic examination. We can examine to ascertain whether the device is infected with any Spyware or Spy app/software.
Yes. We would need the device used for browsing.
Truth Labs can undertake authentication of chat messages (including SMS) if and only if the communication device is submitted for the said purpose. The client can request for a soft copy or printed copy (depending on the number of messages) of these messages to submit as evidence in the court along with authentication report.
Yes. Truth Labs has high capabilities to recover the deleted data from all type of electronic devices like, laptop, desktop, mobile phone, memory card, hard disk etc. for both legal and personal use.
Yes. Truth Labs has capabilities to recover deleted data from Mobile Phone. However, the limitation is applicable on the latest technologically advanced devices (Eg: The recovery of data from the mobile phone with Android ver. 6.1 and above, i-OS ver. 10 and above, Kai OS (Reliance Jio Phone) and some of the Chinese phone is limited).
Truth Labs has sophisticated analytical capability to investigate suspicious activity on the mobile phone. Our team can analyse the device and identify any spy applications, hidden secret applications or malicious code that are installed in the device. Our team can also ascertain whether the suspicious activity is due to device default or due to an application installed with or without consent of the user.
Yes. Truth Labs can undertake decryption of hidden messages stored or transmitted in another file format.
Yes. If the device used by the person (Eg: Laptop, desktop, mobile phone etc.) is provided for examination, the browsing history can be extracted and provided.
Truth Labs can undertake data retrieval from all type of storage devices. However, if the device is damaged physically and/or is not recognised by the system at Truth Labs, the data recover cannot be undertaken.
Retrieval of overwritten data is subjected to the usage of the device/hard disk after deletion of the data. In maximum number cases, the data could not be retrieved or only a partial data can be recovered.
The data retrieval from wiped or formatted mobile phone and other flash devices (i.e. memory card, pen drive, SD card etc.) is very limited. Truth Labs can undertake the preliminary examination to evaluate the possibility of data retrieval.
Truth Labs can undertake the examination of the laptop or device and can furnish the necessary relevant information to the client.
Truth Labs can ascertain whether a media file was created from a particular device or not, only when the suspected device is submitted for examination. The date and time of creation of a file cannot be ascertained to a physical date and time however, the same available in the file property or metadata of the file can be commented upon.
Truth Labs can ascertain the authenticity of the media files independent of the original source device. However, the admissibility of these as evidence in the court depends upon the relevancy and identification / present of these data in the original source device. Moreover, recording of any data of any person without the consent amounts to breach of data privacy laws.
No. Truth Lab does not provide 65B certificate for any activity that is not carried out by the Expert of Truth Labs.
Truth Labs has vast Forensic Services to help the individual in all legal matters. We can undertake authentication of media like audio/call recordings, video recordings, chat messages, SMS messages, Images/photographs etc. which could be helpful as evidence in the court.
No. It is not mandatory to submit the device for ascertain the authenticity of the media files recorded from the device. However, it is highly recommended to submit the original recording device, as complete examination of the media could be carried out by our experts.
The time duration of the retention of any device by Truth Labs depends upon the relevancy and need of the device. Typically for authentication of media files, the retention time is from 3 hours to one working day.
No. Truth Labs can not undertake any tapping of calls or any spying activity.
No. The emails are stored in the servers of service provider and hence cannot be recovered, unless any email client (eg: Outlook, Mozilla Thunderbird, Foxmail, Postbox google mail app, other mobile mail applications) is used to store/synchronise the emails on a laptop or mobile devices.
No. Truth Labs Does not provide 65B certificate for any activity that is not carried over by the Experts of Truth Labs.
No. Truth labs cannot investigate on third part server / hub systems.
No. Truth Labs cannot recover / investigate social media and /or cloud account. Kindly contact the service provider or change your access password.
Truth Labs can authenticate the chat / conversation available on the application installed on the mobile devices. The conversation or post on the server cannot be examined.
It is unlikely that screenshots are admissible as evidence in the court as these are secondary evidence and highly prone to manipulation which pose a major setback in forensic authentication.
No. The data cannot be recovered from a encrypted device unless, the owner or user provides us with the decrypting password / key or unlock password.
No. The GPS location cannot be authenticate or traced.
No. The call details and/or tower location of a mobile number cannot be traced. This can only be done by the Law enforcement agency with proper authorisation due to stringent data privacy laws.
The data recovery from latest new mobile phone is very limited. Since the new devices are encrypted by default, it is difficult to recover the data. Truth Labs can undertake preliminary examination to explore the possibility.
No. As the print form of any conversation / chat is secondary evidence, it cannot be authenticated unless the source or original device is submitted for examination.
Forensic investigation is the process of gathering and analyzing evidence related to a civil or criminal case in order to aid the investigative and judiciary proceedings. Various tools and techniques are used in forensic investigation depending on the nature of the evidence (which may be blood, fluid, fingerprints, residue, hard drives, computers, mobile phones, bullets, tools, weapons, etc.).
Thus, within forensics there are sub-divisions related to a specific type of evidence or area of investigation. These include forensic accounting/auditing, cyber forensics, crime scene forensics, forensic archaeology, forensic dentistry, forensic entomology, forensic graphology, forensic pathology, forensic psychology, forensic toxicology, forensic serology, questioned document analysis, fingerprint analysis, etc.
Regardless of the scenario and evidence, a forensic investigation involves the collection and preservation of evidence that are sent to the respective forensic department. The report including the procedures, observations, and results is submitted which can then be called upon for expert testimony.
Evidence collection and preservation is a systematic and meticulous process as the evidence needs to be in prime condition for accurate analysis (commonly referred to as the ‘Best Evidence Rule’).
The first step would be to secure the crime scene to prevent any damage or tampering of potential evidence. Next, investigators take photos of every angle and object in the crime scene because once each evidence sample is collected, nothing will be in the same place as when the crime occurred, alongside which a rough sketch is also drawn to indicate the positioning of the evidence and the scene of the crime. Investigators need to look out for all forms of evidence ranging from fingerprints, fluids, blood, and residues to hard drives, electronic devices, weapons, and so on. Every detail of the crime scene must be noted no matter how minor they might seem to avoid missing any potentially crucial information. Once the evidence is collected, it must be stored in an appropriate manner to maintain its physical state. This process of preservation and storage depends on the type of evidence, such as anti-static bags for electronics, vials with the appropriate preservative mixture for blood or other fluids, etc. A standard toolkit for a forensic investigator to carry to a crime scene would consist of latex/non-latex gloves, sterilized forceps, sterilized tweezers of multiple sizes, sterilized scalpels, cotton swabs, paper bags/envelopes, plastic bags, cardboard boxes, wrapping paper, vials to preserve and store fluids, tape, alternate light sources, etc.
Depending on the nature of the evidence, specific forensic techniques are used. Each technique requires specific equipment or tools to collect, preserve, and analyze evidence. Fingerprint analysis (requires a camera/scanner, fingerprint powder, alternate light sources, lifting tape, etc.), questioned document analysis (requires measuring rulers and grids, a Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), a micro-spectrometer, etc.), Toxicology (requires Gas Chromatograph–Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer or GC-QMS, GC Ion Trap MS or GC-IMS, etc.), Serology (requires a DNA sequencer, microcentrifuge, stereomicroscope, etc.), firearms analysis (requires stereomicroscope, comparison microscope, GSR analyzing chemicals etc.), blood pattern analysis (camera, cotton swabs, sketchpad, etc.), etc. are all such techniques that are used when necessary.
The key difference between digital and other types of forensics is that digital forensics techniques are used to examine and analyse digital data, that is, data stored in some form on an electronic device, whereas other forensic investigations handle physical evidence. Essentially, digital forensics is a branch of forensic science. The techniques used to preserve, retrieve, and examine such evidence are unique to digital forensics. Such as imaging techniques that are used to clone questioned devices, that preserve the evidence. Digital forensics involves a vast array of techniques depending on the type of digital data that is under analysis such as network forensics, malware forensics, memory forensics, video forensics, audio forensics, computer forensics, mobile forensics, multimedia forensics, email forensics etc.
DNA analysis is crucial to forensic investigation as it allows investigators to determine to whom, a specific evidence found at a crime scene such as blood, saliva, body fluids, skin cells, hair, etc, might belong– which helps in the identification of suspects and victims. DNA analysis can produce evidence of a suspect’s presence at a crime scene during the time at which the crime was committed, which acts as conclusive evidence. It is also used in cases requiring a determination of parentage (paternity test) and cases where proof of rape or sexual assault is required. DNA analysis is also crucial in cases of mass disasters to identify the bodies of victims. Thus, DNA evidence is a key part of forensic investigations as it is conclusive proof of identity.
There is no set timeline for a forensic investigation as the time required entirely depends on the case, the amount and nature of evidence gathered, and the resources available to the forensic investigators involved. However, the general timeline of a typical forensic investigation ranges from one day to one month, depending on all the procedures necessary.
Forensic investigation has played a crucial role in many cases, some of which have even been turned into documentaries, movies, or TV shows. For example, forensic accountants played a key role in exposing the Satyam fraud in 2009 by detailing all the discrepancies and inconsistencies in the company’s financial records and transactions. Digital evidence has been used in the case in Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commision (MPPSC) case where Truth Labs played a critical role in bringing it to light with the analysis. Other sensational cases include matters of National importance where social harmony was at stake with misuse of social media platforms. DNA evidence has been used in many cases such as the Hyderabad blasts in 2014 (where the DNA samples from the bombers’ house matched those of the accused), the Priyadarshini Mattoo case (the criminal, Santosh Kumar Singh, was convicted and sentenced to death six years after he was acquitted in court based on DNA evidence found on the undergarments of the victim, Priyadarshini Mattoo, a law student whom he raped and murdered), and many more. There are many cases related to, identification of human traffickers posing as parents of children they traffic, retrieval of key evidences in mobile and computers in cases related POCSO, Voice Over IP fraud, POSH at workplace and many more that were solved using forensic investigative techniques at Truth Labs, showing the importance of forensic science application in criminal justice system.
The basic qualifications and training include a Bachelor of Science in pure science subjects or Forensic Science and a 2-year Masters in Forensic Science (or any other pure science) or a 2-year PG Diploma in Forensic Science (necessary if neither UG nor PG completed in Forensic Science). For more specific jobs (such as a teaching, research, or advanced leadership position), a 3-year Ph.D. or M.Phil. in Forensic Science may be required. Most importantly, in addition to these academic qualifications clearing forensic licensing examinations in chosen field, along with minimum of 2 years of professional training under the supervision of a qualified senior expert/s in the field of forensics, will allow for development of the skills needed.
The challenges faced by forensic investigators depend on the case at hand. One example of a complex case would be in cyber forensics. Digital evidence already has various complex challenges to overcome to retrieve them, but in more complex cases, finding such evidence might be nearly impossible if the criminal has advanced technical knowledge of computers. In such cases, finding the individual(s) responsible becomes much more difficult and time consuming, if not impossible. Another example of a complex case would be one involving high profile individuals, making the details of the case subject to release on various media platforms. This can cause biases in the investigation process if the investigators have watched the media coverage on the case and thus tend to influence their investigation. Alternatively, with such high-profile individuals being involved, there might be political motives to the crime, which can put the investigators in a dangerous position as well.
It is possible that the forensic evidence can be tampered with or manipulated. Evidence is usually transferred between various laboratories or departments that are at different geographical locations, therefore presenting opportunities to damage or alter the evidence. This is why preserving the chain of custody (CoC) is crucial as it provides a log of whoever has handled the evidence. Further, the examination of packaging and examination of its condition can reveal information of tampering to determine its acceptability for further processing.
Yes. Truth Labs can investigate the trimming or editing of portion of a recording however, it is always advised not to do so, as the evidentiary value of partial / portion of the recording is always suspected.
No. Truth Labs do not undertake Transcribing of audio/video conversations. However, if the transcript is provided the verification and authentication of the same will be carried out.
No. Truth Labs cannot undertake any tapping of calls or any spying activity.