What is Forensic Science?

Forensic Science is the application of all scientific knowledge for the purposes of law, enforcement and administration of justice through use of scientific evidence or material evidence or physical evidence or objective evidence which is available in the form of physical living or no living material which is superior to personal evidence or subjective evidence that is required to prove the guilt or innocence of the suspects in criminal, civil, statutory, regulatory investigative matter and trials.

What does a Forensic Science Lab stand for?

The Forensic Science Laboratory (FSL) is an organisation where the scientists of various specialities undertake laboratory tests on a variety of evidence materials with a sole objective of linking the crime with the criminals, victims and crime scene.

FSL thus provides a comprehensive scientific service from crime scene processing to evidence collection, forensic analysis, report and expert testimony in the courts.

There are many disciplines and departments within a forensic science laboratory viz. Physics, Chemistry, Toxicology, Narcotics & Drugs, Biology, Serology, DNA, Cyber, Audio-Video, Documents, Fingerprints, Engineering, Ballistics, Crime Scene Processing, Linguistics, Forensic Accounting etc.

Truth Labs is the only independent full-fledged forensic science laboratory in India and one of its kind in the world

How many FSLs are there in India?

There are six Central Forensic Science Laboratories (CFSLs) in India under the control of the Directorate of Forensic Science Services (DFSS), MHA, GOI and one CFSL under Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) besides 29 State FSL in each state with some having Regional and District FSLs.
Truth Labs, the first independent forensic science laboratory in India, has been rendering a wide range of forensic analytical and field investigation services for the last 12 years. Currently, Truth Labs is operating from its 6 metropolitan offices located in Hyderabad, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore and Kolkata.

What is the need for a private forensic science lab in India?

Considering that over thirty million cases are pending in the Indian High Courts, Session Courts, Subordinate Courts etc., Truth Labs setup as an independent FSL facilitates the speedy disbursal of justice to every individual or institution in India (NRIs can also avail) who find difficulty in approaching courts or police for resolving their internal, family or business disputes by referring their cases with appropriate documentary or material evidence for examination and report and thereupon to defend in the Courts of law by the former central and state government experts who constitute the Expert Board of Truth Labs.

Are the services of Truth Labs at par with Govt. FSLs?

Truth Labs has an institutional facility with necessary infrastructure including manpower, equipment and scientific environment in all its six offices (unlike individual agencies set up by a few experts in their houses) ensuring prompt delivery of quality reports issued by lifetime experienced experts retired from central and state FSLs across India on account of which 50% of 15,000 cases so far received in the last 12 years have come from police, courts and government agencies which rely and depend upon Truth Labs reports in important, urgent and sensitive cases.

What types of services are offered by Truth Labs?

Truth Labs offer a comprehensive range of forensic services such as Questioned Documents, Disputed Fingerprints, Cyber Forensics, Audio-Video Forensics, Polygraph/Lie-Detector, DNA Profiling, Forensic Linguistics, Physicochemical & Biochemical Analysis, Forensic Accounting & Auditing, Medico-Legal Consultancy, 10 Digit Fingerprint Certification as well as Investigation of incidents such as suspected frauds, insurance claims, burglary, theft, forgery, cheating, trespass, murder, sexual assault, injury, death, abuse or misuse of power, data theft, data leakage, source code theft etc., in addition to providing Forensic Education, Training and Consultancy.

Who are the experts at Truth Labs?

All the senior experts of Truth Labs are qualified, trained, experienced and accredited Forensic Scientists who served the Central and State Government Forensic Institutions throughout their lifetime honestly and retired Honourably. They have been tendering expert testimony in courts all over India. In Truth Labs they have not only given legally valid opinions but also rendered expert testimony in over 5000 cases in courts across India and tribunals, commissioners of enquiry or other legal bodies in the last 12 years.
Truth Labs is the ONLY independent lab set up with 20 Former Central and State Government Directors/Heads of Departments, who undertake examination of cases and issue reports that are valid and legally admissible in the courts and their expert testimony is recorded whenever legal defence is necessary. IT IS A UNIQUE FEATURE ONLY AVAILABLE WITH TRUTH LABS.

What is the time taken for Truth Labs to give the reports?

The reports are given usually within 7 days in routine cases, 14 days in complex cases and little extra time in voluminous cases and in any matter of emergency in 2 days.

How much is the fee to be paid to avail the services of Truth Labs?

Truth Labs is registered as a public society under Andhra Pradesh State Government Societies Registration Act and also a registered MSME organisation of GOI, has been exclusively set up to provide services to common man being easily accessible and affordable to everyone and the professional service fee charged is towards payment of remuneration to the experts and for meeting the administrative and operational expenses with no additional margins for profiteering from our side.

How cases are received and reported in Truth Labs?

The exhibits along with a requisition letter by the competent forwarding authority of service seeker addressed to the Director of respective regional office of Truth Labs giving detailed description of the documents or material evidence, legal / case reference details, brief background of the matter and nature and purpose of examination required, shall be required to be submitted in person, through an authorised representative or by reliable postal / courier services, for forensic examination and report thereof by the concerned experts of Truth Labs.
Truth Labs is not responsible for improper delivery of registered letters/parcels resulting in loss or damage or pilferage of documents. Once the documents are received at Truth Labs, the case is registered assigning a unique File No. and an acknowledgment letter for receipt of the documents is sent immediately.
Even during Covid-19 outbreak across the globe, many clients have come forward for utilizing the forensic analytical services of Truth Labs by sending the relevant material evidence in the form of scanned documents, audio-video recordings, images and pictures, soft copies of mails & headers etc. through email / whatsapp which have been examined by the Experts of Truth Labs and digitally secured reports were furnished. Based on these experiences gained, TRUTH LABS ONLINE FORENSIC SERVICES are now being extended in all urgent, sensitive and important matters of examination of Questioned Documents, Handwriting / Signatures Comparison, Digital Documents Examination, Disputed Fingerprints, Forensic Accounting, Audio-Video Authentication, Speaker & Image Identification, CCTV Footage Enhancement, Email Tracing, Medico-Legal Consultancy etc.

Who all can refer the cases to Truth Labs?

Truth Labs was setup with a sole purpose of empowering all individuals and institutions facing issues of abuse, misuse, fraud, cheating, misappropriation and other traditional crimes like theft, burglary, rape, murder etc. and violations of statutory, regulatory and environmental laws against persons and property to obtain reliable and quality forensic analytical services to settle their internal, family or business disputes.
In addition, courts, police, enforcement agencies as well as other govt. FSLs also refer cases to Truth Labs in all urgent, sensitive and important matters of criminal and civil nature for strengthening and supplementing the efforts of the government to uphold dharma and ensure justice to all in a fair, equitable and transparent manner.

Who are the clients seeking Truth Labs services?

Truth Labs services have been utilized by Courts including 5 High Courts, as well as Sessions & Subordinate Courts of more than over 20 States; Police including CBI, NIA, CRPF, NCRB, CPOs and City, District Police, CID, EOW etc., of more than 15 States; State Forensic Science Laboratories of Delhi and Haryana; Over 40 Banks including public, private and foreign Banks; Over 20 Insurance Companies including public, private and foreign Insurance Cos.; Over 300 Central and State Government Departments & PSUs; Corporates and MNCs, Law firms, Universities, Hospitals, etc., and Individuals from over 25 States across India and several countries abroad.
A comprehensive list of past and present clients (since 2007) is available at Our Clients page. This list includes hundreds of government departments, PSUs, corporates, law firms.

How many cases are reported by Truth Labs till date?

In the last 12 years, Truth Labs has reported over 15,000 cases of which 9000 pertain to Questioned Documents, over 1000 cases dealing with Disputed Fingerprint Analysis, 800 DNA Profiling cases, 500 cases dealing with Polygraph/Lie-Detector, over 900 cases of Cyber Forensics, 900 cases of Audio-Video Forensics, 500 cases involving Biochemical & Physico-chemical examinations, 200 cases of Crime Scene Processing, over 100 cases of Medico-Legal Evaluation as well as 1000 cases of Investigation of Insurance Frauds and 200 cases of Economic Frauds Investigations besides several cases of 10 digit Fingerprint Certification for over 30 countries.

Is Truth Labs accredited by any institution / agency?

The services of Truth Labs are widely recognized by the law enforcement agencies including police, courts, government agencies of central and state governments, institutions as well as individuals from India and abroad by virtue of its credibility, reliability, transparency, accountability, confidentiality and legal admissibility of ISO 9001:2015 certified laboratory reports given by ISO 17025 NABL accredited experts.
Circulars and Standing Orders were issued by DGP Karnataka, Commissioner of Police, Delhi and Kolkata and the High Court of Andhra Pradesh, advising their officers to approach Truth Labs for the past ten years and accordingly more than 15,000 cases referred by police, courts, government departments only have been successfully reported by Truth Labs and expert testimony given.
MoUs have been signed with the Govt. of NCT of Delhi and Government of Haryana for examination and reporting to cases of Questioned Documents by the Experts of Truth Labs to clear the backlog of cases pending at Delhi and Haryana State FSLs.

Is the report given by Truth Labs valid in the court of law?

The reports given by Truth Labs are valid in the court of law according to Section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act. All the senior experts of Truth Labs were originally selected by Central and State Government Forensic Science Laboratory based on their qualification and were trained and then after gaining certain expertise and experience declared as accredited experts in varied fields of forensic science and thereby gained proficiency and thereafter served their lifetime and retired and as such their opinions and reports are legally valid and the evidence is admissible in courts of law or for any legal purpose.

Will the forensic expert of Truth Labs appear in the Court to render expert testimony?

Yes, our forensic experts shall be available to render their evidence in all the courts across India and abroad.

What are the charges for forensic expert to appear in the courts?

The expert testimonial charges are collected towards expert remuneration besides his / her conveyance and other incidental expenses for travelling to other destination to tender evidence which is nominal and lowest compared to govt. and individual private labs.

How can we ensure the confidentiality of information in Truth Labs?

The information or documents or any other material evidence provided to Truth Labs is kept safe, secure and highly confidential.

What forms of payment do you accept?

Truth Labs accepts payments by wire transfers, business cheques, demand drafts and all major debit / credit cards.

How many forensic scientists work in Truth Labs?

There are over 20 senior experts retired from central and state government departments including FSLs, police, judiciary, banks, insurance companies who are supported by more than 30 professional forensic scientists, cyber forensic analysts, information technology specialists, laboratory analysts etc.

Can Truth Labs trace the source and the sender of obscene emails?

Yes, Truth Labs can identify the source and perpetrator of an email.


What are Questioned Documents?

Any surface such as paper, wall, cloth, skin, floor etc. containing handwritten, typewritten, printed, obliterated, erased, invisible matter or inscriptions or marks, symbols or signs, intended to communicate a message and having personal or business or civil or criminal connotations, whose reliability and source is disputed, suspected or questioned is a Questioned Document.
In order to prove the authenticity of the Questioned Document or ascertain the authorship of the handwriting / signatures / printed or typed matter contained therein, the known standard or genuinely admitted writings / signatures of the writer or printed / typed matter along with authentic specimens or sample documents are required for comparison studies by the Documents Expert.

What are the different types of Questioned Documents?

Some of the common types of Questioned Documents subjected for forensic document examination include various kinds of bank, academic, personal, business, property, legal documents such as:
• Wills • GPAs • Gift Deeds • Registration Documents • Mutation Deeds • Settlement Deeds
• Cheques • Bank Drafts • Counterfoils • Pay-In Slips • Pre Orders • Account Opening Forms
• Loan Agreements • Mortgage Documents
• Sale Deeds • Agreements • Receipts • Promissory Notes • Affidavits • Invoices • Ledgers
• Answer Sheets • Application Forms • Mark Sheets • Certificates • OMR Sheets
• Laminated Documents • Photocopied Documents • Colour Scanned/Printed Documents
• Minutes Books • Board Resolutions • MoUs • Appointment and Resignation Letters • Time Sheets • Contracts
• Stamp Papers • Passports • ID Cards • Licenses • Currency Notes
• Suicide notes • Anonymous Letters • Threatening Letters
• Medical Records • Income Tax Records • Election Petitions
• Surface features • Latent images • Alterations • Watermarks • Ink stamps • Rubber Stamps

What types of cases can Forensic Document Examination be applied to?

Several cases of fraudulent transactions in business, family and personal disputes have been solved by analysing different types of questioned documents such as
• Forgery • Cheating • Conspiracy • Falsification • Misappropriation • Embezzlement • Counterfeiting
• Mis-Conduct • Corruption • Bribery • Identity Theft • Contested Wills • Title/Deed Lawsuits
• Impersonation • Recruitment Frauds
• Negotiable Instrument Act • Central Excise Income Tax • Customs Related • Medical Malpractices
• Suicides • Homicides • Kidnappings • Extortion • Stalking

What type of document examination is conducted at Truth Labs?

Forensic Document Experts of Truth Labs have examined and reported over 10,000 cases referred by police, courts, government agencies, banks, corporates, academic institutions and individuals with respect to verification of documents undertaking examination of ink, paper, typed / printed matter, handwriting, thump impressions, stamp impressions, metallic seal impressions, rubber seal impressions, water marks, stamp papers, security features, photographs, alterations, erasures, obliteration etc. with the help of latest state-of-the-art equipment including Video Spectral Comparator, stereo-zoom microscope, magnifiers under various lighting arrangements, so as to ascertain the genuineness of the documents and authorship of the signatures, handwritings, thump impressions or otherwise.
Experiences over the years show that some of the documents are fabricated either by printing the same matter on multiple stamp papers / certificates to make multiple copies appearing to be originals so as to mislead the authorities as well as the document examiners. Even if the stamp paper / certificate is genuine, the printing, the numbering, the signatures, the rubber stamp impressions, the thumb impressions etc. could be forged. Sometimes the fraudsters are resorting to taking a colour photostat of the text on the genuine stamp paper and then at times even laminate it to mislead the authorities. In all these cases the document experts of Truth Labs can undertake forensic examination to identify the forgery.

Who are the Experts undertaking Forensic Document Examination in Truth Labs?

The Forensic Document Examination Expert Board of Truth Labs consists of Former Director of Delhi FSL, Former GEQDs of Shimla, Kolkata, Hyderabad & Chandigarh, Former Joint Director, APFSL, Hyderabad, Chief Document Examiners of Maharashtra and Karnataka, Former Scientific Officer, Delhi FSL and others.

Will the opinion given by Forensic Document Experts of Truth Labs be accepted in court of law?

All the forensic document examiners of Truth Labs are erstwhile central and state government experts who are considered as court accredited experts and as such their opinions are admissible as evidence under section 45 of the Indian Evidence Act, 1960.

What types of equipment are used at Truth Labs for Forensic Document Examination?

The referred documents are examined carefully and thoroughly in various forensic aspects of document examination including detection of forgery with the help of latest state-of-the-art scientific equipment such as VSC-40FS, Stereo Microscope (Leica make) coupled with computer imaging system, direct incident light, oblique light, transmitted light and Ultra Violet light etc.

How many Standard or Admitted or Specimen Documents / Signatures / Handwritings need to be submitted?

The basic requirement of the ‘Standards’ is that these must contain sufficient common features of signatures, handwritings, printed or typed matter etc. for comparison with same features of characters and their combinations as appearing in ‘Questioned’, to be indicative of the writer’s writing habits or a typing / printing device’s individual defects, during a period or as near thereto as possible when the Questioned Document is supposed to have been executed.

As such for an objective forensic examination of questioned signatures / handwriting on disputed documents, it is preferred to have genuinely admitted signatures / handwriting of the person concerned on atleast 4-5 different undisputed / standard documents executed in routine course of business, preferably of the same / nearby period as that of the disputed documents, procured from various official, legal and banking records.

Also it would be preferred to have the specimen signatures / handwriting collected and certified in an open court or an authorized banking or legal authority in the presence of independent witnesses or alternatively can also be collected by Truth Labs for the purpose.

I do not have the original documents, can Truth Labs Experts give opinion on photocopied documents?

To ensure thorough and comprehensive forensic examination for a legally valid report, it is preferred to have the originals of all possible questioned as well as standard documents.
Alternatively clear good quality duly certified reproduction copies or colour scanned copies of the documents in PDF, JPG, or TIF formats can also be utilised for forensic document examination. There are limitations to examinations involving photocopies and the quality of the copy is a significant factor but forensic handwriting examinations can often be performed using photocopies.
Truth Labs has been able to furnish conclusive opinions in many a cases based on examination of photocopies only. However, it is always recommended to make every effort to obtain originals during the course of litigation as the original documents offer objective assessment with respect to examination of ink and paper used which helps in determining the origin of document.
A preliminary assessment by a document expert on suitability and sufficiency of material at hand can be undertaken based on scanned copies of all the documents, if shared through email.

Can I take a picture of the questioned signature and just send it?

It is always recommended that the entire page of the document be sent as Truth Labs will need to source where each signature / handwriting is originated from for thorough and comprehensive forensic examination for a legally valid report.

If the original documents are available in courts / banks / registrar office, will Truth Labs experts undertake photography of documents for examination?

In such cases, initially the preliminary examinations are conducted on reproduction copies and once permitted by the concerned authorities, the Forensic Document Experts of Truth Labs will be undertake inspection and photography of the respective original documents and retain photographic printouts for the purpose of marking, examination and reporting.

Can Truth Labs examine documents in a language not known to the Experts?

Yes, it is possible, but the examiner must first learn about the characteristics of the written language and how that writing is taught. For example, in some languages, placement of Diacritical’s (distinguishing strokes) is important and in other languages, shading of handwritten strokes is significant. The actual methods of examination are the same, but factors are weighed differently when the structure of the writing varies among languages. But, if the material on both counts is similar, then examination becomes easy to an examiner.

Can Truth Labs Experts determine the age of the documents?

It is not possible to give an opinion on the age of the document or a signature as there is no practical method to pinpoint the age with scientific accuracy. External factors like weather, storage etc., influence the age of the document which cannot be established concretely. Moreover, due to lack of data in different kinds of pages and inks used in the Indian context, it is not possible to ascertain the absolute age of the document. However based on the variations of the writer with the age in his/ her handwritings, signatures, initials, efforts can be made to fix the relative age of the writings thereby determining the approximate age or contemporary period of the writer and this is what is done anywhere in India or the World.

Can Forensic Document Experts Tell a Person′s Age, Gender or Handedness From Their Handwriting?

Age, gender, and handedness (right- or left-handed) cannot be ascertained by a person’s handwriting.

I have a printed letter. Can this be compared with a person’s signature to determine if that person executed the letter?

The principal of handwriting comparison says that like can be compared with like, as such a handwriting must be compared with handwriting only that too there must be similar text in both sets of writings for comparative studies. For example, “Jack” cannot be compared with “Bob” because there are no common letters.

I have a Last Will and Testament that was supposed to have been signed by my grandfather. Can the signature be compared with one cheque he signed?

A conclusive opinion cannot be given in a one-on-one comparison. A sufficient sample of genuinely admitted standard signatures are needed for comparison so as to account for the extent of natural variation that can appear in a person’s signature. Conclusive may not be possible unless all characteristics are available for arriving at definitive conclusions, hence submission of more admitted is recommended.

Are the documents returned back after examination?

Yes! All materials are returned back to the client after forensic studies are undertaken and report / opinion is furnished.

Are document examinations destroy the physical condition of documents evidence?

No, all examinations are non-destructive.

Is graphology the same as forensic document examination?

Graphology or graphoanalysis attempts to estimate the character traits of a person from the handwriting while and create a personality profile from handwriting of a person while Forensic Document Examination involves in-depth analysis of more than 20 different handwriting characteristics and its comparison with known standards in order to identify the author or origin of the document of cases of disputes, forgery, cheating etc. While both disciplines involve the analysis of handwriting the principles and methods are quite different.

Can you determine the age of the documents?

So far, no definite methods are available any where in the world for absolute determination of age of the ink used for signatures or handwriting and even for the paper used. However in a few cases it would be possible to distinguish the relative differences in writing characteristics of a person with the advent of age. Such secondary differences can be identified if standard writings of different time periods are available, which can discriminate the age and time related variations.

What are Specimen signatures?

‘Specimen’ signatures are signatures of the concerned person taken either in an open court or by the forensic experts for the purpose of examination in the presence of independent witnesses having good social reputation/background.

Can documents for examination be sent via post?

Any Questioned/Suspected/Disputed documents for examination of handwritings or signatures can be sent preferably through a responsible person or when not possible via registered post. The documents should be furnished with a forwarding letter stating the type of forensic services required and the details of enclosures sent. Incase of signatures, please mark the Disputed Signature as ‘Q’ and the Standard or Specimen signatures sent for comparison as ‘S’. Truth Labs is not responsible for improper delivery of registered letters/parcels resulting in loss or damage or pilferage of documents.

Once the documents are received at Truth Labs the case will be registered, and an acknowledgment letter for the receipt of the documents is sent immediately.

Can forgeries be detected on photocopied documents?

Although originals are preferred for examination of signatures/handwritings, clear photocopies can also be submitted on which opinions can be given in most of the cases. However there are certain limitations with the examination of photocopies.


Is Fingerprint Examination a definite science?

Fingerprint Examination has clearly stood the test of time and experience. Fingerprints are permanent and unique. It has been established over 100 years ago that friction ridge patterns remain unchanged naturally in their ridge detail during the lifetime of an individual and that fact makes it possible for individualization of fingerprints leading to absolute personal identification. Also no two fingerprints are alike. The ridges on the fingers of all persons have basic characteristics such as ridge endings, bifurcations and dots, which appear in combinations that are never repeated on the other finger of same person or any other persons, not even in identical twins.

Can Truth Labs detect fraudulent thumb impressions in cheating and misappropriation cases in the payments of wages, bonus etc. from registers of the companies?

Yes, Truth Labs has already received and examined such cases and detected frauds perpetrated by a group of miscreants who forged on behalf of thousands of employees and our reports are legally admissible in the courts of law.

Can Truth Labs undertake examination of fingerprints to identify cases of impersonation in banking recruitment services, public service commission examinations, railway recruitment board examinations, defence services, university and college admissions and other competitive examinations?

In many such cases wherein it was found after thorough investigation of thumb impression as well as photographs and signatures affixed by them during various processes of admission and examination were proven to be different and impersonated by different people for same candidate. Truth Labs studies revealed for applicant, one person applies for the post, someone else appears for examination and yet another person appears for interview and finally another person joins the post. Such practices of blatant impersonation and cheating were detected in hundreds of cases.

Can Truth Labs undertake forensic examination of scene of thefts in shops, offices, industries, residential and other places by searching and lifting the chance prints for comparison with prints of suspects and inmates?

Yes, TL has been rendering such services for the past over 10 years and successfully detected the frauds to the relief of the concerned.

Are the photocopies of documents having fingerprints considered for examination by Truth Labs?

Although original documents having fingerprints are preferred for examination, clear photocopies can also be submitted. However there are limitations with the examination of photocopies.

What is a latent print?

Present on the tops of the friction skin ridges are very minute sweat pores that are constantly exuding perspiration. This perspiration adheres to the outline of these ridges. Other substances, like oil from touching your face or hair, can also adhere to these ridges. When an object is touched, a recording of these characteristics may be left upon the surface. At times, these impressions will be visible, and at other times they will be invisible; thus the term “latent”. Although visible prints are truly patent prints, they are frequently referred to as latent prints. The invisible latents must be developed or made visible either by the application of powders, chemicals, or electronic means.

Do Truth Labs Fingerprint Experts go to crime scene to recover Fingerprints?

Yes, as and when required Truth Labs experts visit the scene of crime to develop and lift fingerprints. In cases of theft, cheating, embezzlement, murder etc. fingerprints of suspects can be collected for comparison and suspect identification.

Does the fingerprints change with age?

Fingerprints are static and do not change with age and time. With age there will be changes in size and shape, as the person grows, but the basic pattern of the fingerprint remains unchanged from infancy to adulthood. Since each person has unique fingerprints, they can be used for personal identification.

Do injuries alter the pattern of fingerprints?

Injuries such as superficial burns, abrasions, or cuts do not affect the ridge structure or alter the dermal papillae, and the original pattern is duplicated in any new skin that grows.

Can the age of a latent print be determined?

It is not possible to determine sex, age or race from a latent print; if sufficient DNA is left behind, then the party’s sex can be determined.

Whether Truth Labs provides 10 digit impression services for taking fingerprints to fulfil visa, immigration, police clearance and employment verification for prospective students, immigrants, applicants and citizens?

Truth Labs in all its six offices at Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Chennai and Kolkata has qualified and certified fingerprint experts and the services of Truth Labs are already recognised by embassies of various countries such US, Bahrain and several other countries and so far such services were already provided for PCC requirements of Foreign Embassies of over 30 countries such as USA, UK, Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, UAE, Bahrain, Israel, Singapore, Canada, Switzerland, Uganda, Malaysia, Kuwait, Iraq, Oman, Afghanistan, Qatar, South Africa, Nigeria, Iran, Tanzania, Trinidad & Tobago, Maldives and many others.

How are fingerprints collected?

Finger printing is done by
a. using ink and a card, or
b. using digital scanning and printing
In ink fingerprinting process, the person’s finger is first cleaned with alcohol to remove any sweat and dried thoroughly. The person then rolls his or her fingertip on the inkpad to cover the entire finger digit. Then each finger is the rolled onto pre-marked cards from one side of the fingernail to the other. These are therefore called “rolled prints”. Then, all 10 fingers of both the hands are placed on the card at a 45° angle, ensuring enough ink is left over the fingers, to produce a set of “plain or flat impressions”. These are useful to verify the accuracy of rolled impressions as well as for keeping record of 10 digit prints.
In the digital scanning based fingerprinting, an image of finger print is taken by placing the fingers of the person on an optical reading surface of the device and held for a few seconds till all the characteristics are recorded. The reader then converts the information from the scanner to the printer for making a 10 digit fingerprint card.

Is the PG Diploma useful for career development?

The PG Diploma awarded after successful completion of the course work designed by Truth Labs in affiliation with the University of Hyderabad, Centre for Distance Education is a course useful for acquiring knowledge by any legal professional for improving their professional standards and for those who are seeking careers in police, prosecution, judiciary etc. can immensely benefit in their ability to perform well in the theory exams and oral interviews.

Does high blood pressure affect the accuracy of the Polygraph test?

No. While blood pressure is one of the physiological reactions measured, it does not affect the accuracy of the test. However, prior to examination, it is necessary to ensure medical fitness of the subject.

Whether the opinions given by Truth Labs experts are valid in the court of law?

As the senior experts of Truth Labs who joined Truth Labs after their retirement from central and state fingerprint bureau after having been recruited, trained and certified by GOI and have already given expert opinion in thousands of cases and their reports are valid in courts of law and have been attending the courts for expert testimony across the country.


What is DNA?

DNA is Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid, a biological material found in all human beings and other living beings, whether live or dead condition, which is inherited from both parents and acts as an invisible unique personal identity factor for people plant animals as well as viruses like Covid-19 to know the origin of all living things.

What materials contain DNA evidence?

DNA can be obtained from any cell inside a living being’s body. All living tissues including body parts like hair roots, nails, teeth, bones, tissues etc. and physiological fluids like blood, semen, saliva etc. in case of human beings can be used as DNA evidence besides seeds, leaves, pollen and other plant parts in case of botanical samples and hides of deer, quills of birds, tissues of animal, insects, microbial worms and viruses.

How can DNA be used to identify a person?

DNA is useful to identify an individual because everyone’s genetic code (their genome) is unique, unless they have an identical twin. The string of chemical letters in a person’s DNA can therefore act like a unique bar code to identify them.

Why is DNA different from a fingerprint?

DNA and fingerprints can be left wherever a person goes, so both can be used to track and identify individuals. But DNA can also identify relatives, including non-paternity and contains genetic information about a person’s health and other characteristics and the risks of genetic disorders in their children.

What is a forensic DNA profile?

DNA is a string of chemical letters and such strings that make up a person’s DNA occur repeatedly in the genome and constitute the DNA Profile. These are known as short tandem repeats (STRs) and the number of repeats differs between individuals and can be counted. Each STR is made up of two strands, one inherited from the mother and one from the father. The DNA profile also includes a test of a gene called amelogenin, which can be used to test whether the DNA sample comes from a male (with an X and Y chromosome) or a female (with two X chromosomes).

Can my DNA identify my relatives?

Because a person inherits half their DNA from their mother and half from their father, DNA profile can be used to identify the biological relatives also. Close relatives have a DNA sequence that is more alike than distant relatives or than someone who is unrelated. Comparing two people’s DNA profiles can identify close genetic relatives such as parents, brothers, sisters and children.

How can DNA be left at a crime scene?

Touch DNA, also known as Trace DNA, is a forensic method for analysing DNA left at the scene of a crime. It is called “touch DNA” because it only requires very small samples, for example from the skin cells left on an object after it has been touched or casually handled, or from footprints.

In what types of cases does DNA Fingerprinting prove useful?

DNA Fingerprinting tests can be conducted to establish the paternity of a child in cases involving:

  • Accidental or intentional child swapping
  • Property heredity issues (to determine parentage)
  • Disputed paternity (who is the father)
  • Personal identity of dead in accidents, fires, mass disasters etc.
  • Murder, rape cases with evidence of blood, semen etc.
  • Genetic linkage of animals, birds, plants, seeds etc.

I would like to submit samples for forensic paternity testing. Would you recommend sending in a sample from the biological mother as well?

Yes, using a 13 loci STR system with the mother’s sample, you will usually see a probability of paternity around 99.999%; without the mother, you will see a probability of paternity around 99.9%.

Which bone would be best to submit for human DNA identification?

It is recommend sending the femur if available. If the femur is not an option, then a molar or the next largest load-bearing bone available would be the best option. Truth Labs has been successful with obtaining full DNA profiles from highly-decomposed and burnt bone fragments in many cases of missing persons identification, rape and murder victim identification etc.

Is it possible to obtain DNA from the ashes of an individual who was cremated?

If the cremation temperature was lower than 1500 degrees Celsius, teeth may have survived and could be processed for STR or mtDNA analysis.

Can hairs be tested by nuclear STR DNA analysis?

Truth Labs can examine the hair for STR suitability. The suitability will depend on whether there is a root attached and the stage of growth of the hair. Based on our examination, we will make a recommendation for nuclear or mitochondrial testing.

Can a hair sample that does not contain follicular material be tested for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)?

Yes, mitochondrial testing is the DNA analysis method for profiling using hair samples without roots.

What documents do I need to bring in to avail the DNA Profiling services?

The subjects are required to sign a prescribed Proforma in the form of an Affidavit on a Rs. 20/- Stamp paper declaring the willful decision to undergo DNA test and then get it duly attested by an attorney or notary. Also all adults must bring a valid proof of ID like a passport or a driver’s license. Incase of minors’, a birth certificate or hospital birth record must be brought. Passport size photographs of all those providing samples for the DNA test are required.

How long does it take to get the test results?

The DNA test results are given usually within a period of 10 days, while in cases of emergency such as organ transplantation within 5 days.
Truth Labs, rendering services in DNA analysis with regards to paternity disputes, identification of persons in murder, rape & mass disaster cases, establishment of pedigree, child swapping, organ transplantation and HLA technique in collaboration with leading laboratories such as CCMB, CSIR, Ministry of Science & Technology; Genome Foundation, Hyderabad; Life Forensics Laboratory, Gurgaon.

Does Truth Labs undertake DNA analysis for genetic disease mapping?

Yes, Truth Labs has a facility to offer affordable high quality DNA genetic tests for patients with genetic diseases like ß-thalassemia, sickle cell anaemia, organ transplantation, single gene disorders etc.

Is a DNA test 100% accurate?

DNA testing is generally considered to be the most accurate testing method available. DNA paternity testing can show that a man is highly likely to be the father with about 99.9% accuracy, or that he is excluded as being the father with 100% accuracy.

What are the samples required for establishing maternity/paternity/parentage?

Blood samples of the child, mother and father need to be provided for a disputed paternity test. Only under special circumstances are samples of the child and one parent taken for testing.

Where are the sample collection points located?

The subjects are required to come to any of the offices of Truth Labs located in Hyderabad, Delhi, Bangalore and Chennai.

What type of sample needs to be submitted for DNA test?

5ml of fresh blood in EDTA vials or Blood spotted on FTA Cards

S. No.Nature of ExaminationType of Sample
1Paternity / Maternity / Biological Relatedness
Samples to be collected by scientists of Truth Labs or authorised medical officer with due certification upon identification of the subjects
2Personal Identification of deceasedMolar tooth or femur (long) bone, or any other biological material such as a drop of blood, saliva, semen, and any body part such as bones, tissue, skull, teeth, hair with root etc.
Samples collected during post mortem by an authorized doctor and handed over to the investigation agency and thereupon submitted to Truth Labs following proper procedure of identification, collection, certification, labelling, packing and forwarding, in sealed condition along with a request letter / memo from the concerned forwarding authority giving background of the case, details of the exhibits and nature and purpose of examination, enclosing copy of FIR, seizure list, report of medico-legal examination and other relevant documents for reference and record.
3Identity of diver in accident casesStains and scrapings from upholstery fabric, dashboard surface, windshield glass, running board surface etc. and
Fresh blood from suspected / alleged driver with due certification of his identity
Samples are collected after thorough inspection, search, identification and recording of samples from the incident vehicle by the expert team of Truth Labs

In what types of cases does DNA Fingerprinting prove useful?

DNA Fingerprinting tests can be conducted for identification, individualisation or establishing biological relatedness in a wide variety of cases such as:
a. To establish the paternity in cases involving:
• Accidental or intentional child swapping (to know who are the biological father and the biological mother)
• Property heredity issues (to determine parentage)
• Disputed paternity (to know who is the biological father)
• Child adoption in civil matters
• Fetal remains testing
b. Personal identity of dead in accidents, fires, mass disasters, missing persons, unidentified bodies etc. (by comparing with DNA of kith and kin)
c. Insurance driver change cases to determine the identity of driver who got injured at the time of motor vehicle accident (by examining blood from stains during injury on and around the driver seat and console with control samples collected from alleged / suspected drivers)
d. Rape and murder cases with evidence of blood, semen etc. (to link the victim to the accused and prove the crime)
e. Relationship establishment for organ transplant, surrogacy & IVF, visa and immigration processes (by comparing wit DNA of kith and kin)
f. Plant and wildlife DNA testing (comparison with known samples)


What types of evidences are encountered in Cyber Crimes cases?

All hardware, storage media and other media like desktops, laptops, mobile phones, personal digital assistants, servers, flash drives, external hard drives and camera cards, CD/DVDs, floppy disks, zip drives, tape media, digital organizers, SIM cards, cell phone memory and all types of smart cards can be used as evidence. Also included are all types of electronic data like e-mail, webmail (hotmail, yahoo, AOL), plain text and documents, images, calendar files, contact files, databases, spreadsheets, digital faxes, audio files, video files, websites, computer applications, viruses and spyware.

What kinds of Cyber Forensic Investigations are undertaken at Truth Labs?

Any computer based fraud, abuse etc. such as obscene, defamatory or ransom emails, intellectual property thefts, employee dishonesty, sexual harassment, identity theft, financial frauds, phishing, stalking, hacking, business espionage, trade and business secrets thefts etc. are undertaken at Truth Labs.

Can we not use our local computer experts?

There are very distinct differences between Computer Professionals and specialized Computer Forensic Examiner. While both work with computers, the focus and training’s is drastically different. Normal hardware and software knowledge in no way equates to the specificity level of a computer forensics expert. The ability to safely and thoroughly examine the computers or any kind of digital evidence is a highly specialized skill that requires specialized training and systematic procedures. If anyone other than a qualified computer examiner does the job of collection or retrieval of data there is every possibility of altering, losing, or destroying the data.

Can SMS/MMS message texts or images be analyzed?

Yes. It is possible to track and trace the source of these messages.

Can you recover data from deleted files?

Yes. Truth Labs has sophisticated software’s and tools to recover deleted data from hard disks and memory devices. Evidences can be retrieved from user files, deleted files, email messages, file copying, attempted data destruction, internet usage and other activities.

Are credit card frauds covered under Cyber Forensics?


Can Truth Labs trace the source and the sender of obscene emails?

Yes, Truth Labs can identify the source and perpetrator of an email.

My phone/hard drive/laptop has been formatted, can you retrieve the data?

We cannot assure a 100% recovery or retrieval of all data, however, all possible attempts would be made. In case the phone or laptop has been formatted by using “Factory Reset” or similar options, available technology does not allow the retrieval of such deleted data

When connected to my laptop, hard drive is detected but no data is seen. Can you recover the data?

We can attempt to recover data however, 100% cannot be given

When connected to my laptop, hard drive is not detected. Can you recover the data?

No, it cannot be done.

Some media files have been deleted from my phone. Can you recover the data?

Yes, it can be done but we 100% recovery cannot be guaranteed.

My mobile has been factory reset. Can you recover the data?

No, it cannot be done.

My mobile phone is not switching on can you recover any data from it?

No, if the mobile phone is not getting switched on, we cannot undertake the examination of the same.

Can you trace the location of a mobile number?

No, we cannot trace the location of a mobile number.

I need to retrieve the deleted data of 6-8 months back from a device. Is it possible?

We can attempt to retrieve the data but we cannot guarantee 100 % retrieval. It depends on the extent to which the device was used after the data was deleted.

Obscene photos/messages are being uploaded/posted in a Facebook/Social Media account, can you trace from where it is being uploaded?

No, it cannot be done.

Can you authenticate WhatsApp chats and text messages received in a number or phone and provide 65B for the same?

Yes, the receipt of the messages can be authenticated, however, the contents are not subject of authentication. We would need the mobile phone of either the sender or the recipient. Only if the mobile phone of the sender or recipient is submitted for examination and WhatsApp chats are retrieved from it, we can issue a 65B certificate.

I have some emails in my Inbox, can you authenticate them?

Yes, it can be done. However, the content of the emails are not subject of authentication.

I have received my monthly phone bills from my phone company over email, can you authenticate the phone bills?

No, content of emails cannot be authenticated. However, we can authenticate the email with respect to its sender, recipient, date & time of receipt, attachments, if any.

I have some emails/suspicious/threatening/fake email in my Gmail/Yahoo/Rediff etc account, can you track and authenticate the location/system it was sent from?


Can you authenticate Google location history?

No, they can be subjected to manipulation.

I want all the details of files present/deleted in a mobile phone but it is password protected and I do not know the password? Is it possible?

We can attempt the retrieval. It is informed that bypassing of passwords may not be possible for all mobile phones and hence is subject to the make and model of the mobile phone.

I need to get the recording of a phone call from my/ relative’s/ friend’s phone. Can you extract and analyze the recording?

We can attempt to retrieve the recording, only of the same has been recorded and saved in the phone. If only phone numbers are available, then we would not be able to retrieve or examine the call.

Can the location of a phone number be tracked?

No, we cannot track the location.

I need to find the authenticity of a Facebook ID/ page. Can you authenticate the same?

Yes, we can authenticate the required Facebook ID/ page. We can ascertain if the particular page/ ID are active or not

I need to authenticate an image/ video/ audio stored in a mobile/ laptop. Do I need to submit the device also for authentication? Do you provide 65B certification for the media?

Yes, we can authenticate the media on the device and it is preferred that the device is submitted for analysis as well. The 65 B certification can be given only if the primary device (the device used to record the media) is submitted.

I have printouts of a chat (SMS/WhatsApp, etc) but do not have the actual/original device or source of the chat. Can you Authenticate the printouts?

No, authenticating of printouts of chats in the absence of the device or source of the chat cannot be undertaken.

Can you recover deleted emails from a web-based email account like Yahoo, Rediff, Gmail, etc.?

No, We cannot recover deleted emails from a web-based email account.

I am suspecting my phone/laptop was installed by a spy app/software. How your organisation will help in this scenario?

You may submit the device for forensic examination. We can examine to ascertain whether the device is infected with any Spyware or Spy app/software.

If I provide two phone numbers can Truth Labs perform tapping of the calls?


Is it possible to certify browsing history of a person with the list of frequent sites they visit?

Yes. We would need the device used for browsing.

I have a Facebook, Whats App, We chat etc. (other messaging app) chat messages. How I can go for authentication or submit as evidence in the court?

Truth Labs can undertake authentication of chat messages (including SMS) if and only if the communication device is submitted for the said purpose. The client can request for a soft copy or printed copy (depending on the number of messages) of these messages to submit as evidence in the court along with authentication report.

Can Truth Labs undertake deleted data recover?

Yes. Truth Labs has high capabilities to recover the deleted data from all type of electronic devices like, laptop, desktop, mobile phone, memory card, hard disk etc. for both legal and personal use.

I deleted some SMS, Call logs, Chat messages etc. I now required those for legal purpose. Can you recover?

Yes. Truth Labs has capabilities to recover deleted data from Mobile Phone. However, the limitation is applicable on the latest technologically advanced devices (Eg: The recovery of data from the mobile phone with Android ver. 6.1 and above, i-OS ver. 10 and above, Kai OS (Reliance Jio Phone) and some of the Chinese phone is limited).

Somebody is overhearing my calls and all my information is being leaked. I have a suspicion that someone is spying on my mobile or some spy app has been installed in my phone? How Truth Labs can investigate the scenario?

Truth Labs has sophisticated analytical capability to investigate suspicious activity on the mobile phone. Our team can analyse the device and identify any spy applications, hidden secret applications or malicious code that are installed in the device. Our team can also ascertain whether the suspicious activity is due to device default or due to an application installed with or without consent of the user.

Can you identify a secret message encrypted in a file?

Yes. Truth Labs can undertake decryption of hidden messages stored or transmitted in another file format.

Is it possible to certify browsing history of a person and know the list of frequent sites they visit?

Yes. If the device used by the person (Eg: Laptop, desktop, mobile phone etc.) is provided for examination, the browsing history can be extracted and provided.

Can you recover data from a SD card, hard disk, external hard disk or pen drive which is not intact, not recognised or broken?

Truth Labs can undertake data retrieval from all type of storage devices. However, if the device is damaged physically and/or is not recognised by the system at Truth Labs, the data recover cannot be undertaken.

Is retrieval possible for overwritten data in a hard disk?

Retrieval of overwritten data is subjected to the usage of the device/hard disk after deletion of the data. In maximum number cases, the data could not be retrieved or only a partial data can be recovered.

All the data from my phone got erased or I have wiped / formatted all data in the mobile phone. Is it possible to retrieve the data?

The data retrieval from wiped or formatted mobile phone and other flash devices (i.e. memory card, pen drive, SD card etc.) is very limited. Truth Labs can undertake the preliminary examination to evaluate the possibility of data retrieval.

The company wanted to get examined a laptop of a former employee to check whether any confidential data has been copied shared through emails or uploaded to the personal cloud storage. Does your organisation have the capability to examine?

Truth Labs can undertake the examination of the laptop or device and can furnish the necessary relevant information to the client.

I have some media files and wanted to know the source from which it was created and to determine its creation date and time. Can you guys do it?

Truth Labs can ascertain whether a media file was created from a particular device or not, only when the suspected device is submitted for examination. The date and time of creation of a file cannot be ascertained to a physical date and time however, the same available in the file property or metadata of the file can be commented upon.

I have installed spyware in another person’s or my partner’s phone. I have many data like sms, call logs, recording, image, chat message received to my email id. Can I submit these in the court? How does Truth Labs can certify these as authentic? Can the media recorded through spy apps are admissible in court of law or not?

Truth Labs can ascertain the authenticity of the media files independent of the original source device. However, the admissibility of these as evidence in the court depends upon the relevancy and identification / present of these data in the original source device. Moreover, recording of any data of any person without the consent amounts to breach of data privacy laws.

Can Truth Labs provide me with 65B certificate for the recording or any data copied / recorded by me?

No. Truth Lab does not provide 65B certificate for any activity that is not carried out by the Expert of Truth Labs.

I have been falsely accused of harassment case. How you guys can help me?

Truth Labs has vast Forensic Services to help the individual in all legal matters. We can undertake authentication of media like audio/call recordings, video recordings, chat messages, SMS messages, Images/photographs etc. which could be helpful as evidence in the court.

Do I have to mandatorily submit my device / mobile phone for examination of any media that was recorded in the device?

No. It is not mandatory to submit the device for ascertain the authenticity of the media files recorded from the device. However, it is highly recommended to submit the original recording device, as complete examination of the media could be carried out by our experts.

For how long does Truth Labs need my device / mobile phone to conduct the required examination?

The time duration of the retention of any device by Truth Labs depends upon the relevancy and need of the device. Typically for authentication of media files, the retention time is from 3 hours to one working day.

If I provide two phone numbers can Truth Labs perform tapping of the calls?

No. Truth Labs can not undertake any tapping of calls or any spying activity.

Can deleted e-mails be recovered?

No. The emails are stored in the servers of service provider and hence cannot be recovered, unless any email client (eg: Outlook, Mozilla Thunderbird, Foxmail, Postbox google mail app, other mobile mail applications) is used to store/synchronise the emails on a laptop or mobile devices.

Can you provide a 65-B certificate for data shared on e-mail / WhatsApp, Bluetooth etc?

No. Truth Labs Does not provide 65B certificate for any activity that is not carried over by the Experts of Truth Labs.

Can you identify security breach in a system which is connected to a hub?

No. Truth labs cannot investigate on third part server / hub systems.

My Facebook profile is hacked, can you recover my account?

No. Truth Labs cannot recover / investigate social media and /or cloud account. Kindly contact the service provider or change your access password.

Can you authenticate Facebook conversation?

Truth Labs can authenticate the chat / conversation available on the application installed on the mobile devices. The conversation or post on the server cannot be examined.

Authentication of mobile phone screen shots legally admissible or not?

It is unlikely that screenshots are admissible as evidence in the court as these are secondary evidence and highly prone to manipulation which pose a major setback in forensic authentication.

Is it possible to recover the data form encrypted I Phone / android phones?

No. The data cannot be recovered from a encrypted device unless, the owner or user provides us with the decrypting password / key or unlock password.

Is it possible to authenticate the GPS location of images? Can you trace the GPS location / tower location of my phone to know my location at a particular date and time?

No. The GPS location cannot be authenticate or traced.

Is there any way your organisation can help me fetch my call details along with tower location from my Airtel number for particular date?

No. The call details and/or tower location of a mobile number cannot be traced. This can only be done by the Law enforcement agency with proper authorisation due to stringent data privacy laws.

I am using one plus 6T mobile (or latest new mobile phones). Unfortunately, I forgot my pattern. I would like to recover all my data from it. Can you do it?

The data recovery from latest new mobile phone is very limited. Since the new devices are encrypted by default, it is difficult to recover the data. Truth Labs can undertake preliminary examination to explore the possibility.

Can you authenticate printed chat, SMS or conversation messages / emails?

No. As the print form of any conversation / chat is secondary evidence, it cannot be authenticated unless the source or original device is submitted for examination.


What is a forensic investigation, and what does it involve?

Forensic investigation is the process of gathering and analyzing evidence related to a civil or criminal case in order to aid the investigative and judiciary proceedings. Various tools and techniques are used in forensic investigation depending on the nature of the evidence (which may be blood, fluid, fingerprints, residue, hard drives, computers, mobile phones, bullets, tools, weapons, etc.).  

Thus, within forensics there are sub-divisions related to a specific type of evidence or area of investigation. These include forensic accounting/auditing, cyber forensics, crime scene forensics, forensic archaeology, forensic dentistry, forensic entomology, forensic graphology, forensic pathology, forensic psychology, forensic toxicology, forensic serology, questioned document analysis, fingerprint analysis, etc.  

Regardless of the scenario and evidence, a forensic investigation involves the collection and preservation of evidence that are sent to the respective forensic department. The report including the procedures, observations, and results is submitted which can then be called upon for expert testimony. 

How do forensic investigators collect and preserve evidence at a crime scene?

Evidence collection and preservation is a systematic and meticulous process as the evidence needs to be in prime condition for accurate analysis (commonly referred to as the ‘Best Evidence Rule’).  

The first step would be to secure the crime scene to prevent any damage or tampering of potential evidence. Next, investigators take photos of every angle and object in the crime scene because once each evidence sample is collected, nothing will be in the same place as when the crime occurred, alongside which a rough sketch is also drawn to indicate the positioning of the evidence and the scene of the crime. Investigators need to look out for all forms of evidence ranging from fingerprints, fluids, blood, and residues to hard drives, electronic devices, weapons, and so on.  Every detail of the crime scene must be noted no matter how minor they might seem to avoid missing any potentially crucial information. Once the evidence is collected, it must be stored in an appropriate manner to maintain its physical state. This process of preservation and storage depends on the type of evidence, such as anti-static bags for electronics, vials with the appropriate preservative mixture for blood or other fluids, etc. A standard toolkit for a forensic investigator to carry to a crime scene would consist of latex/non-latex gloves, sterilized forceps, sterilized tweezers of multiple sizes, sterilized scalpels, cotton swabs, paper bags/envelopes, plastic bags, cardboard boxes, wrapping paper, vials to preserve and store fluids, tape, alternate light sources, etc. 

What techniques and tools are used in forensic analysis?

Depending on the nature of the evidence, specific forensic techniques are used. Each technique requires specific equipment or tools to collect, preserve, and analyze evidence. Fingerprint analysis (requires a camera/scanner, fingerprint powder, alternate light sources, lifting tape, etc.), questioned document analysis (requires measuring rulers and grids, a Video Spectral Comparator (VSC), a micro-spectrometer, etc.), Toxicology (requires Gas Chromatograph–Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer or GC-QMS, GC Ion Trap MS or GC-IMS, etc.), Serology (requires a DNA sequencer, microcentrifuge, stereomicroscope, etc.), firearms analysis (requires stereomicroscope, comparison microscope, GSR analyzing chemicals etc.), blood pattern analysis (camera, cotton swabs, sketchpad, etc.), etc. are all such techniques that are used when necessary. 

How is digital forensics different from other types of forensic investigations?

The key difference between digital and other types of forensics is that digital forensics techniques are used to examine and analyse digital data, that is, data stored in some form on an electronic device, whereas other forensic investigations handle physical evidence. Essentially, digital forensics is a branch of forensic science. The techniques used to preserve, retrieve, and examine such evidence are unique to digital forensics. Such as imaging techniques that are used to clone questioned devices, that preserve the evidence. Digital forensics involves a vast array of techniques depending on the type of digital data that is under analysis such as network forensics, malware forensics, memory forensics, video forensics, audio forensics, computer forensics, mobile forensics, multimedia forensics, email forensics etc. 

What role does DNA analysis play in forensic investigations?

DNA analysis is crucial to forensic investigation as it allows investigators to determine to whom, a specific evidence found at a crime scene such as blood, saliva, body fluids, skin cells, hair, etc, might belong– which helps in the identification of suspects and victims. DNA analysis can produce evidence of a suspect’s presence at a crime scene during the time at which the crime was committed, which acts as conclusive evidence. It is also used in cases requiring a determination of parentage (paternity test) and cases where proof of rape or sexual assault is required. DNA analysis is also crucial in cases of mass disasters to identify the bodies of victims. Thus, DNA evidence is a key part of forensic investigations as it is conclusive proof of identity. 

How long does a typical forensic investigation process take?

There is no set timeline for a forensic investigation as the time required entirely depends on the case, the amount and nature of evidence gathered, and the resources available to the forensic investigators involved. However, the general timeline of a typical forensic investigation ranges from one day to one month, depending on all the procedures necessary. 

What are some famous cases where forensic investigation played a crucial role?

Forensic investigation has played a crucial role in many cases, some of which have even been turned into documentaries, movies, or TV shows. For example, forensic accountants played a key role in exposing the Satyam fraud in 2009 by detailing all the discrepancies and inconsistencies in the company’s financial records and transactions. Digital evidence has been used in the case in Madhya Pradesh Public Service Commision (MPPSC) case where Truth Labs played a critical role in bringing it to light with the analysis.   Other sensational cases include matters of National importance where social harmony was at stake with misuse of social media platforms.   DNA evidence has been used in many cases such as the Hyderabad blasts in 2014 (where the DNA samples from the bombers’ house matched those of the accused), the Priyadarshini Mattoo case (the criminal, Santosh Kumar Singh, was convicted and sentenced to death six years after he was acquitted in court based on DNA evidence found on the undergarments of the victim, Priyadarshini Mattoo, a law student whom he raped and murdered), and many more. There are many cases related to, identification of human traffickers posing as parents of children they traffic, retrieval of key evidences in mobile and computers in cases related POCSO, Voice Over IP fraud, POSH at workplace and many more that were solved using forensic investigative techniques at Truth Labs,  showing the importance of forensic science application in criminal justice system. 

What qualifications and training are required to become a forensic investigator?

The basic qualifications and training include a Bachelor of Science in pure science subjects or Forensic Science and a 2-year Masters in Forensic Science (or any other pure science) or a 2-year PG Diploma in Forensic Science (necessary if neither UG nor PG completed in Forensic Science). For more specific jobs (such as a teaching, research, or advanced leadership position), a 3-year Ph.D. or M.Phil. in Forensic Science may be required. Most importantly, in addition to these academic qualifications clearing forensic licensing examinations in chosen field, along with minimum of 2 years of professional training under the supervision of a qualified senior expert/s in the field of forensics, will allow for development of the skills needed. 

What challenges do forensic investigators face in solving complex cases?

The challenges faced by forensic investigators depend on the case at hand. One example of a complex case would be in cyber forensics. Digital evidence already has various complex challenges to overcome to retrieve them, but in more complex cases, finding such evidence might be nearly impossible if the criminal has advanced technical knowledge of computers. In such cases, finding the individual(s) responsible becomes much more difficult and time consuming, if not impossible. Another example of a complex case would be one involving high profile individuals, making the details of the case subject to release on various media platforms. This can cause biases in the investigation process if the investigators have watched the media coverage on the case and thus tend to influence their investigation. Alternatively, with such high-profile individuals being involved, there might be political motives to the crime, which can put the investigators in a dangerous position as well. 

Can forensic evidence be tampered with or manipulated?

It is possible that the forensic evidence can be tampered with or manipulated. Evidence is usually transferred between various laboratories or departments that are at different geographical locations, therefore presenting opportunities to damage or alter the evidence. This is why preserving the chain of custody (CoC) is crucial as it provides a log of whoever has handled the evidenceFurther, the examination of packaging and examination of its condition can reveal information of tampering to determine its acceptability for further processing. 

Is it possible to investigate voice memo app trimmed recording in iPhone?

Yes. Truth Labs can investigate the trimming or editing of portion of a recording however, it is always advised not to do so, as the evidentiary value of partial / portion of the recording is always suspected.

If I provide an audio file, can I get a transcript done at Truth Labs?

No. Truth Labs do not undertake Transcribing of audio/video conversations. However, if the transcript is provided the verification and authentication of the same will be carried out.

I need to hear conversation of my wife with the particular caller? Can you guys do it?

No. Truth Labs cannot undertake any tapping of calls or any spying activity.